Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis, LB) is a multisystem and multistage infection caused by spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genogroup, which are transmitted to humans during the blood feeding of ticks of the genus Ixodes. These spirochetes include Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii.
Symptoms. LB exhibits a variety of symptoms that may be confused with immune and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation around the tick bite causes skin lesions. Any of the following clinical manifestations may be present in patients with Lyme disease: arthritis, neurological disease, cardiac disease, or skin lesions. Erythema chronicum migrans is 1st stage of the disease. Neurologic and cardiac symptoms may appear with stage 2 and arthritic symptoms with stage 3 of LB. Secondary symptoms may occur even though the patient does not recall a tick bite or a rash.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis of LB should be made only after careful evaluation of the patient's clinical history, physical findings, laboratory evidence and exposure risk evaluation. Exposure to ticks prior to disease manifestations is essential for the diagnosis of LB.
The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) relies on the host recognising Borrelia antigens to make antibodies. It is likely to provide more false negative results because Borrelia itself can suppress the immune system and its production of antibodies.
Highly specific method of testing uses Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which detects Borrelia DNA in blood. Not only can it detect Borrelia, but is capable of differentiating between Borrelia species and strains, additionally it does not rely on patient’s immune response.
A positive result indicates the presence of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi.
A negative result indicates the absence of detectable DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi in the specimen. A negative result does not preclude the presence of the organism or active Lyme disease (Borrelia often reside in skin tissues, heart, nervous system, in collagen, in joints).
At CMG care we use PCR method to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato..
Detection: We offer DNA test for the detection of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato using the RT-PCR and PCR techniques.
Specimen Requirements: RNA is isolated from the peripheral blood, collected in 2 ml EDTA Vacutainer tube (lavender top). Blood is collected on Monday, Thursday and Friday from 9 to 13:00
Turnaround time: 3-5 days
For further information please contact:
Tel.: (+374 10) 544367
Fax: (+374 10) 544366