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Laboratory Services
Clinical Laboratory

Clinical Laboratory uses sophisticated equipment and biochemical, microscopic and immunological techniques to analyze blood, tissues and other medical specimens. Clinical laboratory provides essential information to physicians and other health care professionals about the presence, extent, or absence of diseases, as well as effectiveness of treatment. Clinical laboratory test results are extremely important for diagnosis and treatment. We offer wide-range of reliable testing of the highest quality for the diagnosis and clinical care of our patients.

Biochemical Laboratory

Biochemical part. Genetic disorders have become a focal point in laboratory medicine. Approximately one thousand inborn errors of metabolism have been identified to date. Our Clinic covers the biochemical diagnosis of these errors. And is defined as first concerned with the evaluation and diagnosis of patients and families with inherited metabolic disease, monitoring of treatment, and distinguishing heterozygous carriers from non-carriers by metabolite and enzymatic analysis of physiological fluids and tissues. The Biochemical Laboratory is an interdisciplinary group of, geneticists biochemists physicians and laboratorians with a mission to provide biochemical testing and result interpretation of the highest quality for the diagnosis, study and clinical care of patients with disorders of metabolism. We routinely perform qualitative detection and quantitative determination of diagnostic markers based on a variety of manual and automated methods. Our Biochemical Laboratory faculty and staff strive to provide clinicians and families with an accurate and rapid confirmatory diagnosis as well as follow-up testing for newborns suspected of having a metabolic disorders. Our Clinical Biochemical Laboratory provides comprehensive metabolic testing for the diagnosis and management of patients with a wide variety of inborn errors of metabolism. We serve the patients of our Clinic, as well as a growing number of outreach clients. We strive to: - Provide the highest quality of laboratory testing and patient care - Offer expert test interpretations and consultative services to physicians - Translate new discoveries into more efficient patient testing - Training the students for the next generation of clinical and laboratory scientists Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunopathology of the Center of Medical Genetics and Primary Health Care perform 56 different tests (in area of biochemistry, hemostasis and oncology). We use a modern equipment and reagents from leading firms (DAKO, Hoffmann La Roche, Hitachi): - The Cobas c111 analyser for clinical chemistry - The Cobas c311 analyser for clinical chemistry - The Stago analyzer for coagulation study - PT_Link, etc. Our laboratory faculty and staff appreciate the trust you place in us, and we strive everyday to provide exceptional service for our referring physicians, genetic counselors and most importantly, the families they serve.

Immunopathology Laboratory

Our laboratory faculty and staff appreciate the trust you place in us, and we strive everyday to provide exceptional service for our referring physicians, genetic counselors and most importantly, the families they serve. We offer the following tests for oncology: 1. Estrogen and Progesterone receptors (method of immunohistochemistry) 2. Her-2/neu (method of immunohistochemistry, FISH) 3. Ki-67 (method of immunohistochemistry) 4. P53 receptor (method of immunohistochemistry) Immunohistochemical Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors are nuclear hormone receptors found in certain cells throughout the body. ERs and PRs are expressed in about 70% and 60% of invasive breast cancers, respectively. These tumors are named hormone-dependent because estrogen and/or progesterone hormones affect their growth. Status of ERs and PRs must be checked as an essential part of an initial analysis of all primary breast cancers. ER and PR are weak factors for prognosis but are strong predictive factors for response to endocrine therapies. Patients with ER/PR- positive tumors tend to have a better-than-average prognosis to respond to endocrine therapy than those with ER/PR- negative tumors. Her-2/neu HER2/neu (also known as ErbB-2) stands for "Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2" and it is a protein giving higher aggressiveness in breast cancers. It is encoded by the ERBB2 gene. Approximately 15-20% of breast cancers have an amplification of the HER2/neu gene or overexpression of its protein product. Overexpression of HER2/neu in breast cancer is associated with increased disease recurrence and worse prognosis. Because of its prognostic role as well as its ability to predict response to Trastuzumab (Herceptin), breast tumors are routinely checked for overexpression of HER2/neu. HER2/neu is also used as a predictor of response to therapy such as resistance to hormonal therapy. Therefore, HER2/neu testing is not diagnostic but helps physicians to understand more about tumor’s characteristics and to choose the treatment options. Overexpression also occurs in other cancer such as ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, and biologically aggressive forms of uterine cancer, such as uterine serous endometrial carcinoma. Since January, 2011 CMG was starting additional tests for Her-2/neu FISH: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization - uses fluorescent probes to look at the number of HER2 gene copies in the tumor cell. If there are more than 2 copies of the HER2 gene, then the cancer is HER2 positive. Ki-67: Proliferation is a key feature of the progression of tumors and is now widely estimated by the immunohistochemical assessment of the nuclear antigen Ki-67. The Ki-67 is a marker of proliferation. High Ki-67 is a sign of poor prognosis associated with a good chance of clinical response to chemotherapy. P53 plays an important role in cell cycle control and apoptosis. Defective p53 could allow abnormal cells to proliferative, resulting in cancer. High p53 is a sign of poor prognosis associated with a bad chance of clinical response to chemotherapy. For Estrogen/Progesterone/Hercep, Ki-67, p53 immunohistoche-mical tests and FISH/CISH, please contact: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunopathology Tel: (+ 374) 10 544367 Fax: (+ 374) 10 544366 e-mail: arrmi@mail.ru